Wednesday 14 June 2023

How to Make Kao Fu - Magical Vegan Meat | to make Pan-Fried & Steamed Pork Bao 怎樣做烤麩 | 做素生煎包和素蒸菜肉包

How to Make Juicy Vegan Pork Bao, both pan fried and steamed with Homemade Kao Fu (烤麩)- the Magical Homemade Vegan Meat.

如何用烤麩 - 百變素肉,製作美味多汁的素生煎包和素蒸肉包呢?

Everyone loves Baozi 包子 (known more commonly as Bao 包 or Bao Bun).

But have you ever been able to enjoy both pan fried and steamed vegan pork Bao at the same time? Often restaurants will serve one style but not the other - that’s if you’re lucky enough to even find somewhere offering a delicious vegan version. 

But, if you are making your own, you certainly can have your Bao and eat it!

A perfectly made Bao needs to have these two very important elements: tasty, juicy filling which is wrapped up inside a soft, fluffy Bao bun.

A soft, fluffy bao bun is difficult enough to produce as it is, but how can you create juicy vegan pork? The answer to that is by following our easy recipe, you will master it in no time!

The secret to making juicy vegan pork is using our Magical Homemade Vegan Meat.

Our Magical Homemade Vegan Meat idea is adapted from one of the most famous Chinese foods “Kao Fu Gluten” which means Steamed Gluten. The original creation includes washing the flour before steaming and braising.

My recipe does not require washing the flour and I have also added my own touches to turn the steamed gluten into all different types of meat substitutes - which you can pan-fry, shallow fry, deep-fry or add directly to your dish. They can also be marinated and used in various traditional dishes, regional cuisines or popular Dim Sum.

I can’t wait to share all the recipes from my delicious “Easy Magical Homemade Vegan Meat” series with you all!

Here, let’s start with making Baozi first. 

中文食譜在下面 For the Chinese recipe please scroll down)




柔軟蓬鬆的包子本身就已經夠難做的了,但要如何才能做出多汁的素豬肉呢? 答案是如果你依照我們的簡單食譜,絕對很快便掌握得到!



我的食譜不需要洗麵粉,我還加了自己的做法,將蒸過的麵筋變成各種不同類型的肉類替代品你可以用平底鍋煎、淺煎、油炸或直接加進你的菜中。 也可以把它們醃製後成為各種傳統菜餚、地方美食或流行的點心的重要材料之一。



中文食譜在下面 For the Chinese recipe please scroll down)

Soft & Juicy Vegan Pork Bao

To make Kao Fu, the Magical Homemade Vegan Meat:


100g vital wheat gluten flour

150ml lukewarm water (30 - 32°C)

½ tsp sugar

¼ tsp dried active yeast (the type needs to dissolve in water)


1.  In a measuring jug, add the water, sugar, then the yeast, stirring to mix. Leave the mixture for 5 minutes to activate the yeast.

2.  Put the vital wheat gluten flour in a bowl and once the yeast and water mixture has activated after 5 minutes, add this to the flour. Use a spatula to mix it together quickly into a soft dough. You need to work fast as vital wheat gluten flour absorbs water really quickly. If not mixed well fast enough, it could result in uneven textured dough.

3.  Once the dough is formed, gently press and squeeze it together for 2 minutes. You don’t need to do too much kneading or pushing, as the shape and texture of the dough has more or less been formed once the water was added into it.

4.  Put the dough in a lightly oiled deep dish, I used an oval shaped one, roughly 20cm x 25cm x 5cm, you can use a round one or a rectangular one.

5. Fill the bottom of a steamer with some hot water, making sure the water won’t be too close when you place the deep dish on top. Put the deep dish with the dough inside in the steamer, cover and let the dough proof for 1½ hour. 

6. After 1½ hour, the dough should have relaxed and doubled in size. It may be a little sticky to touch and stuck to the bottom a bit, you can just use a silicone spatular to help scraping and lifting the whole piece up, and turn it over and press down to form the shape. Bring the water in the steamer to the boil over medium high heat, then turn the heat down to medium until the water is on a rapid simmer (over medium heat) and giving out some gentle steam (visible) through the vents. Keep the water on a medium heat and steam the dough for 30 minutes.

7. When 30 minutes is up, don’t turn off the heat, remove the lid from the steamer while the heat is still on to prevent water dripping down or the cold air from outside deflating the Kao Fu too much. The dough should now be fully risen, looking like a sponge - soft and springy to the touch. This spongy gluten has become our Magical Homemade Vegan Meat. It will be perfect for soaking up and absorbing flavours and turning into juicy vegan meat following different recipes.

8. Once cooled, cut the Kao Fu up and store in the fridge in a sealed container for at least 4 hours to firm up before using.

You’ve just finished making Kao Fu!

To make the Bao dough:


(makes 14 x 40g baozi)

420g All purpose plain flour (try using protein content around 10g per 100g flour for the most fluffy result) 

220ml lukewarm water (30 - 32°C)

2 tsp sugar

½ tsp dried active yeast (the type which needs to dissolve in water)

Extra all purpose plain flour for dusting 


1. Add the water, sugar, and then the yeast to a measuring jug, stir to mix. Leave the mixture for 5 minutes to activate the yeast.

2. Add the plain flour into a large mixing bowl, gradually adding in the yeast water, leaving behind a couple of tablespoons to add later when needed.

3. Start by mixing the water and flour with chopsticks, then use your hand to knead until the flour and water are mostly combined. Add the rest of the yeast water into the bowl, knead until all the flour has been absorbed and a rough dough is formed.

4. Turn the dough out on the work surface, continue to knead with the heels of your hands. Pushing, pressing, stretching, folding and turning the dough to knead, until it is smooth and supple all over, about 8 -10 minutes.

5. Put the dough back in the mixing bowl, cover and leave it in a warm place to rest for 1½ hour.

To make the filling: 


40g dried Shiitake mushrooms (can easily get them from any Chinese supermarkets)

160g dried preserved radish (can easily get them from any Chinese supermarkets)

400g Chinese cabbage

160g homemade Kao Fu

large bunch coriander 

4 slices ginger

Stir-fry sauce:

1 tsp salt

1 tsp ground white pepper 

1 tsp sugar

1 tsp mushroom seasoning 

1 tbsp wine

1 tbsp light soy sauce

1 tbsp sesame oil

2 tbsp vegan oyster sauce


1. Cover the dried Shiitake mushrooms in hot water for 20 minutes to soften, then wash and rinse clean. Soak in hot water for a further 2 hours until soft.

2. Wash the dried preserved radish then soak in warm water to soften and to remove some of the salty flavour, for 30 minutes.

3. Take the mushrooms out from the water, no need to squeeze them dry. Keep the soaking liquid for later use. Drain the dried radish.

4. Cut the ginger slices into thin strips, then chop the strips into tiny dices. Remove stalks from the mushrooms before cutting them, the radish and Kao Fu all into big cubes. Separate the white and green part of the Chinese cabbage and chop them up into square pieces. Chop up the coriander roughly.

5. Add the stir fry sauce ingredients to a bowl and mix well.

6. Heat 2 tbsp oil in a large frying pan over medium to high heat, add the ginger and fry until fragrant. Add the mushrooms to fry until brown, then tip in the dried radish and continue frying before adding the white part of the cabbage. Fry everything together for a couple of minutes to cook out some of the the water content inside and to lock in the flavour. Then stir in the Kao Fu, followed by the stir-fry sauce.

7. Stir-fry everything together for a little while, then add in the green part of the cabbage. Stir around to cook a little bit before spooning in 3tbsp of the mushroom water. Continue to fry for a couple of minutes before adding 3 more tbsp of mushroom water. Fry until everything is softened but still slightly crunchy. Season to taste then add in coriander before emptying the cooked filling into a large bowl.

8. Use a food processor to slightly chop and mix the cooked filling in three batches, stopping to scrape down from the sides to ensure even sized pieces. It’s important not to process the pieces too small in order to retain the meaty texture.

9. Empty half of the chopped filling into a bowl, and put the other half in a container which you can then freeze for future use, when needing to make baozi again this can simply be defrosted and save a lot of time! 

10. Leave the filling to cool while you make the dough.

To make the Baozi wrapper:


1 Make sure everything you need to wrap the bao buns with is all on hand nearby. As soon as the proofing time for the dough is up, you should start right away (over proofed dough will make the wrapper floppy and difficult to control).

2. After 1½ hour the dough should have doubled in size. Remove it from the mixing bowl, gently press and squeeze it into a thick disc, no need to knead. Use a rolling pin to make a hole in centre of the dough, put your hands through the hole and keep turning it around to create a donut shaped dough.

3. Cut the donut dough up to form two even size logs. Put one back in the mixing bowl and cover to prevent it from drying up whilst you work on the other half.

4  Divide the log into 7 x 40g dough pieces, roll each one in your palm to form a ball shape. Place all the dough balls on a lightly floured tray and cover with a clean tea towel.

To make the pan-fried and steamed pork Bao Buns :


1. Add 1 tbsp oil to an 8 inch non-stick pan. Dust the work surface lightly again with a little plain flour, pick up a dough ball and press it down with your palm to form a thick little disc. Hold the disc up with your left thumb and fingers and turn, using your right hand to roll the rolling pin forwards and backwards on the edges of the dough (please refer to the video) until the outer edges are thin but the middle part is a little thicker, the baozi wrapper should be about 10cm in diameter.

2. Curl your left palm up to cradle the wrapper, put 2 tbsp filling in, place your right thumb on top of the wrapper, put your right index finger underneath to pinch and gather each pleat whilst the left thumb pushes the filling down and the palm turning the baozi around (please refer to the video). When the pleating is completed, use your right thumb and index finger to pinch the top together to form a peak, twist and nip off any excess dough to seal, then gently tug it around to form a perfect bao bun shape. Put the finished baozi on the oiled pan, then continue to wrap the other 6. Put them all in the pan, making sure each bottom of the bun has coated with oil and has room for each to expand after frying. Leave to proof for 20 minutes without cover.

3. Whilst the first batch are proofing, take 7 small square pieces of parchment paper to place on the steamer. Take out the other dough log and follow the same steps as before to wrap another 7 baozi. Place each one on the parchment paper in the steamer, again, keeping as much space as possible between each bun for expansion after steaming. Leave to proof 20 minutes whilst you pan-fry the first batch.

4. Place the non-stick pan with baozi over medium to high heat and pour in 1 cup of cold water. Cover and cook for about 10 minutes or until the water has nearly dried off. Then open the lid to allow the water to evaporate for the final step. Check to see if the bottoms are golden and crispy enough, you can leave them on the pan over medium heat to brown a little more if you prefer. That’s your mouth-watering Pan-Fried Juicy Vegan Pork Bao done!

5. Next, bring a pan of water to the boil and put the steamer with the uncooked baozi on top, making sure the hot water level is not too high and definitely does not reach the bottom of the steamer. Cover and steam on a high heat for 10 minutes. After 10 minutes, remove the lid immediately before turning off the heat, otherwise water will drip back onto the bao buns and it may create “dimple” like little holes, or the cold air from outside may deflate the buns. And now your soft and fluffy steamed Juicy Vegan Pork Bao is ready!

6. Sprinkle the pan-fried baozi with toasted black and white sesame seeds and serve the buns with your favourite dipping sauce. I made mine up with crispy chilli in oil, vinegar, sugar and sesame oil with a touch of light soy sauce, so delicious!!

There you have it, delicious juicy pork bao - both pan-fried and steamed - veganised!

柔軟多汁素生煎包 | 素菜肉包



麵筋粉 (vital wheat gluten flour) 100g

温水 150ml (30 - 32°C)

1 小匙糖

乾酵母 ½ 小匙(需要溶於水的種類)


1.  在量杯中加入水、糖和酵母,攪拌混合。 將混合物靜置 5 分鐘以激活酵母。

2.  將麵筋粉放入大碗中,5 分鐘後將酵母和水混合物加入麵粉中。 用抹刀將它們快速混合成柔軟的麵團。你的動作要靈活,因為麵筋粉吸水很快,如果攪拌不夠快, 可能會導致某部份吸水量不均勻。

3.  麵團成型後,輕輕按壓,揉捏 2 分鐘,不要太用力推和搓,因為一旦加入水,麵團的形狀和質地或多或少已形成了。

4.  把麵團放在抹了少許油的深盤裡,我用的是橢圓形的,大約 20cm x 25cm x 5cm,你可以用圓形或者長方形的。

5.  在蒸鍋底部注熱水,但不要太高,讓將深盤放在上面時水不會太接近。 把盛有麵團的深盤放入蒸籠中,蓋上蓋子,讓麵團醒發 1.5 小時。

6.  1.5 小時後,麵團應該已鬆弛並變大了一倍,可能有點黏手和黏著盤底,只要用矽膠抹刀輕輕把麵團推剷起來,反轉再放回盤子上便行。 將蒸鍋中的水用中高火煮沸,然後將火調低一點,直到水剛剛沸騰並從通風口處發出一些輕微 (可以看得到 ) 的蒸汽。 將水保持在滾滾文火上把麵團蒸 30 分鐘。

7.  30 分鐘後,不要關火,趁熱打開蒸籠,以防止水滴落下,或外面的冷空氣使烤麩過度下塌。 麵團現在應該完全發起,看起來像一塊海綿 —— 按下鬆軟有彈性。 這塊海綿狀的麵筋已成為了我們的百變素肉烤麩 它的多孔質感非常適合吸飽湯汁和吸收美味,並可依照不同的食譜演變成各款美味多汁的素肉。

8.  冷卻後,將烤麩切開,然後放入密封容器中,置冰箱冷藏至少 4 小時,使其結實一點後再使用。




(做 14 x 40g 的包子)

中筋麵粉 420g(盡量找每100g 麵粉中蛋白質含量 

10g 左右 的,以獲得最蓬鬆的效果)

温水 220ml (30 - 32°C)

白糖 2 小匙

乾酵母 ½ 小匙(需要溶於水的種類)



1  將水、糖和酵母加入量杯中,攪拌混合。 將混合物靜置 5 分鐘以激活酵母。

2  將中筋麵粉加入一個大碗中,逐漸加入酵母水,留下 2 大匙左右在最後需要時加入。

3  先用筷子把水和麵粉混合,然後用手揉,直揉至麵粉和水大部分混合。 將剩餘的酵母水加入碗中,搓揉至所有麵粉都被吸收並形成粗糙的麵團。

4 將麵團翻到工作面上,繼續用手掌心搓揉。把麵團推、壓、拉伸、折疊和轉動地揉捏,直到麵團光滑柔軟,大約 8 -10 分鐘。

5  將麵團放回大碗内,蓋上蓋子,放在溫暖的地方靜置 1.5 小時。



乾香菇 40g(很容易從任何中國超市買到)

菜脯條 (醃蘿蔔乾) 160g (很容易從任何中國超市買到)

大白菜 400g

自製烤麩 160g

香菜 (芫荽) 一大束

生薑 4

炒醬 :

1 小匙

白胡椒粉 1 小匙

白糖 1 小匙 

香菇調味粉 1 小匙

料酒 1 大匙

生抽 1 大匙

麻油 1 大匙

素蠔油 2 大匙


乾香菇蓋著用溫水浸泡 20 分鐘軟化,然後冲洗乾淨。 在另一大碗的溫水(約 50C)中再浸泡 2小時直至變軟。

將菜甫條洗淨,然後用溫水浸泡 30 分鐘軟化並去除一些鹹味。

把乾香菇從水裡拿出來,不用擠乾。 並保留浸泡香菇水以備後用。 瀝乾蘿蔔幹。

4  將薑片切成細條,然後切成小丁。 香菇先去蒂,再與菜甫條和烤麩都切成大方塊。 把大白菜的白色和綠色部分分開,切成方塊。 將香菜粗略切碎。

5  將炒醬料加入碗中,攪拌均勻。

6  在大煎鍋中用中高火加熱 2 大匙油,加入薑末炒香。 加入香菇炒至金黃,然後倒入菜甫粒,繼續炒一會後,加入捲心菜的白色部分。 把所有的材料一起翻炒幾分鐘,把裡面的一些水份炒出,鎖住味道。 然後拌入烤麩,接著下炒醬。

7  把鍋中所有東西一起兜炒一會兒,然後加入捲心菜的綠色部分。 拌炒一會,然後用勺子舀入 3 大匙泡香菇水。 繼續翻炒幾分鐘,然後再加入 3 大匙泡香菇水。 炒至全部材料變軟但仍然有點爽脆,試味後加入香菜, 然後將炒熟的餡料倒入一個大碗中。

8  用食物處理機將炒熟的餡料分三批稍微攪碎,中途停下從旁邊刮下有黏着的,確保餡料大小均勻。 最重要不要將材料切得太小以保持肉質口感。

9  將一半拌好的餡料倒入碗中,另一半放入容器中冷凍儲存,下次需要再做包子時解凍即可,省時省力!

10 讓餡料放涼,開始做包子皮。



1  確保包裹包子所需的一切配料都在附近。 一旦麵團的醒發時間到了,你應該馬上開始著手做包子(醒發過度的麵團會使包子皮鬆軟且難以控制)。

2  1.5 小時後,麵團應該會變大一倍。 將它從大碗中取出,輕輕按壓並擠成厚厚的圓盤,無需揉捏。 用擀麵杖在麵團中間挖一個洞,將手伸進洞裡,不停地轉動,做出一個甜甜圈形狀的麵團。

3  將甜甜圈形麵團切成兩段大小均勻的長麵團。 將其中一段放回大碗並蓋上蓋子,以防止在你處理另一段時它會變乾。

4.  將長麵團分成 7 x 40g 的麵團塊,將每個麵團塊在手掌中滾動,形成球形。 把所有麵團球放在撒了少許麵粉的托盤上,並蓋上乾淨的廚巾。



1.  在 8 吋平底不粘鍋中加入 1 大匙油。 再在工作面上輕輕撒上少許中筋麵粉,拿起一個麵團球,用手掌心向下壓,形成一個扁小的圓麵皮。 左手大拇指和其他手指將圓麵皮提起來轉動,右手推擀麵棍在面皮的邊緣上前後滾動(請看視頻),直到形成一塊外緣較薄,而中間部分較厚的包子皮,直徑應該在 10cm 左右。

2.  將左手掌心向上捲曲以托住包子皮,放入 2 大匙餡料,將右手拇指放在包子皮的上方,把右手食指放在下邊,用拇指和食指捏住和按緊的每個褶皺,同時左手拇指向下推動填充物,手掌轉動周圍的包子(請參考視頻)。 打褶完成後,用右手拇指和食指將頂部捏在一起形成一個尖峰,扭動並捏掉多餘的麵團以密封,然後輕輕推揑一下,以形成一個完美的包子形狀。 做好的包子放在下了油的平底鍋子裡,然後繼續完成包子。把包子都放進鍋裡,確保每個包子的底部都沾滿了油,和每個之間保持足够距離,因為煎好後的包子都會膨脹起來。 不蓋蓋子鬆馳 20 分鐘。

3.  在第一批鬆馳期間,取 7 張小方形烘焙紙放在蒸籠上。 取出另一段麵團,按照之前的步驟再把 7個包子包好,放在蒸籠中的紙上,每個之間也保持足够距離讓蒸後膨脹。 也是不蓋蓋子鬆馳 20 分鐘。期間,你可以去煎第一批的包子。

4.  將放有包子的不粘鍋置於中大火上,然後倒入 1 杯冷水。 蓋上鍋蓋煎約 10 分鐘或直到水幾乎乾涸。 然後打開蓋子讓水在最後一步進行蒸發。 檢查底部,如果感覺不夠金黃酥脆的話,你可以讓它們在鍋上用中火加熱到更棕色一點。 令人垂涎欲滴的香煎多汁素肉包就完成了!

5.  接下來,將一鍋水燒開,然後將蒸籠和包子放在上面,確保熱水的水位不要太高,絕對不能達到蒸籠的底部。 蓋上蓋子,大火蒸 10 分鐘。 10 分鐘後,馬上打開蓋子然後才關火,不然水汽會滴回包子上,可能會出現“凹陷”狀的小孔,或者外面的冷空氣會使包子收縮。 現在你鬆軟多汁的蒸素肉包就做好了。 

6.  在煎好的包子上撒點烘好的黑芝麻和白芝麻,然後佐你最喜歡的蘸醬。 我用老干媽香脆辣椒油拌進醋、糖和麻油,再加一點生抽而成,實在太好吃了!

就這樣,美味多汁的素菜肉包 - 煎和蒸,都一起完成了!


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